Several studies have suggested that daily caffeine administration can protect against brain injury in some cases, for example in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, as well as in ischemic and traumatic brain injury, or allergic encephalitis. Olga Valverde’s group at the CEXS-UPF decided to check if it could also have a positive effect on MDMA-induced neuroinflammation.
The recreational drug MDMA, or ecstasy, induces astrocytic and microglial activation in mice striatum, which leads to inflammation and neurotoxicity. They injected caffeine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg, i.p) for 21 consecutive days into mice, and then on day 22, mice pretreated with caffeine or saline (controls) received a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (3 × 20 mg/kg, i.p., 2-h interval) or saline. Changes in body temperature were evaluated. Forty-eight hours after the last MDMA or saline injection, behavioral parameters such as locomotor activity, sensorimotor reflexes, and anxiety were investigated and microglia and astroglia activation to MDMA treatment was examined in the mouse striatum.
The results, published in the journal Psychopharmacology, show that consuming regularly low doses of caffeine (10 mg/kg) completely prevented MDMA-induced glial activation without inducing physiological or behavioral alterations in any of the assays performed. Therefore, caffeine can have anti-inflammatory effects on ecstasy-induced neuroinflammation in mice.
Ruiz-Medina J, Pinto-Xavier A, Rodríguez-Arias M, Miñarro J, Valverde O. Influence of chronic caffeine on MDMA-induced behavioral and neuroinflammatory response in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Nov 29;