The Computer-Assisted Drug Design (CADD) laboratory of the GRIB is devoted to the area of drug design and development. Directed by Manuel Pastor, who started the group 10 years ago at the IMIM, it includes pharmacists, biologists, chemists, and a mathematician. “We also had a telecommunications engineer at one point. Our research needs experts in both science and programming”, justifies Pastor.
The group’s interests are divided into three main areas. The first is methodological: they have written several programs marketed and are used by many pharmaceutical companies. The most recent one is Pentacle, which allows the creation of models relating the structure with the activity of a compound, as well as the computation of molecular descriptors. “Molecular descriptors are used to convert a real molecule into a computer representation, so they are needed in pretty much all steps of drug development”, explains the head of the group. Another software tool created by the group a few years ago is Shop. “Imagine you have a molecule that has the desired effect, but it cannot be used: because, for example, it’s toxic, or not soluble enough. With Shop you can remove the fragment that causes the problem and substitute it for another that will maintain the same biological activity without the side effect”.
A second research area is structure-based drug design (SBDD), which they apply to the study of schizophrenia. In collaboration with other groups in Santiago de Compostela they are looking at potential drug targets for the disease to try to find new compounds that can bind them.
The most recent and active research area is focused on drug safety. The group coordinates the IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative) project eTOX, which aims to develop methodologies to predict toxic properties of new compounds in silico (with the help of computers) and as early as possible. “This project involves pretty much all the big pharmaceutical companies in Europe, as well as some of the best European academic groups in cheminformatics”- says Pastor – “Pharma companies have realised that what is making it difficult for them is not the competition, but the intrinsic complexity of the problem. They have run out of easy targets, and the existing methodologies are not working that well finding good drugs for the difficult ones. So they are starting to join forces”.
Another upcoming IMI project Pastor is excited about is OpenPhacts (Open Pharmacological Space). As with eTox, Pastor will collaborate with Ferran Sanz and other GRIB members, to contribute to this project which “will change the scene completely”, promises the head of CADD. “There is a lot of information publically available information that is of interest to pharmaceutical companies: data on compounds, structures and, pathways. But it’´s all dispersed, and the industry is spending huge amounts of money trying to collect and exploit this information. OpenPhacts will bring together make pertinent enquiries, such as: is there a compound similar to this one involved in this specific pathway? The CADD group will contribute by assessing these relevant questions. “The drug companies know what they need, and the technical experts know what can be done. We are the intermediaries, we know about both worlds”, concludes Pastor.
This article was published in the El·lipse publication of the PRBB.